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The Arctic: A Cold, Frozen Continent

Angel Guerrero, Writer

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The Arctic, a mysterious land of cold, wind, and abundant snow, fascinates people even in modern times. The Arctic, located at the North Pole, has a rugged climate that challenges explorers to survive. During the mid-winter months, temperatures drop to -50 degrees, the sun never rises, and the nights can last up to 20 hours certain times of the year.

Originally discovered by the Vikings, William Smith and James Bransfield in 1772-1775 claimed this area on an expedition. The Arctic area includes the Arctic ocean, Greenland, Baffin Islands, and several other small islands. Also, the Arctic circle reaches to northern parts of Europe, Siberia Russia, Alaska, and Canada.

Eskimos, Russians, and Saami people inhabit the Arctic circle, making the population exceed two million. They adapted to the cold and harsh climate after many generations. They hunt the animals native to the land, and make their own shelters to protect themselves from the severe climate.

Plants grow on a layer of soil called permafrost, a frozen, partially decomposed, organic matter, which freezes year round. Lichen, mosses, and 1.700 other types of plants live in this environment. It supplies the native herbivores and omnivores with a reliable food supply because no trees can live in the area owing to harsh, climatic conditions.

Land animals, air animals, and different types of sea animals live in the beautiful Arctic. Polar bears, shrews, wolverines, and 5,000+ more animals live in the cold, freezing, temperatures. They live in these conditions because of their thick fur and/or flubber.

The Arctic–a mysterious land at the top of the earth!

 

 

 

 

 

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The Arctic: A Cold, Frozen Continent